Prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic cell

Prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic cell


  • Every living organism except viruses has a Cellular organization.
  • Organisms having only a single cell are known as unicellular organisms example bacteria, protozoa.
  • Organisms having multiple cells in their body are known as multicellular organisms.

Cells are of two types:

  1. Prokaryotic cells
  2. Eukaryotic cells

The term prokaryote and eukaryote suggested in the 1960s by Hans Ris.

Prokaryotic cells

in Gr., pro= primitive and karyon = nucleus

  • prokaryotic cells are small, simple, and most primitive cells.
  • Perhaps3.5 billion-year ago stromatolites are the first cells that came into existence.
  • A prokaryotic cell is a one envelope system, it consists of nuclear components that are surrounded by a cytoplasmic ground substance with the enveloped plasma membrane.
  • None of the cellular components of a prokaryotic cell are very well developed and enclosed by a membrane.
  • A Prokaryotic cell didn’t contain nucleoli, microfilaments, microtubules (cytoskeleton), centrioles, and basal bodies.


Eukaryotic cells

In Gr., eu =good, karyotic = nucleated

  • eukaryotic cells are two envelop system and very much larger than prokaryotic cells.
  • The primary membrane protects the cell and secondary membranes envelop the nucleus and other internal cellular organelles.
  • Eukaryotic cells are the true cells which occur in plant and animal cells with different shapes, size, and physiology.
  • Eukaryotic cells have a Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, etc.
  • Eukaryotic cells contain well developed cellular components and nucleus in which the genetic information is stored (DNA, RNA).

Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes:

Features   Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
DNA Prokaryotes have circular DNA that is naked. No introns are present Eukaryotes have linear DNA that is bound to protein. Introns are present
Organelles The nucleus is absent, cell organelles are not very well developed, no membrane is bounded

70S ribosomes are present

Contains a nucleus, cell organelles are very well developed, and membrane-bounded, 80S ribosome are present


Reproduction Reproduction by binary fusion,

Contains single chromosome(haploid)

Reproduction is complex (meiosis and mitosis)

Chromosomes are paired(diploid)

Cell size Usually 0.5-10 µm Usually 10-100 µm
Nucleoplasm Absent Present
Cell wall Made of peptidoglycan In plants cell wall is made up of cellulose
Flagella Simple type, lack microtubules Complex, consist of multiple microtubules
Ribosomes Smaller 70S Large 80S
Mucilaginous capsule Present Absent
Plasma membrane with steroid Usually absent Present
Chromatin with histone Absent Present
Plasmid Commonly present Rare
Cellular organelles

i.          Mitochondria

ii.           ER

iii.          Vacuoles

iv.          Lysosomes

v.          Chloroplast

vi.          Centrioles

vii.        Microtubules














Present (in plants)



Example Bacteria Animal and plant


Difference between animal and plant cell

Animal cell Plant cell
Cells are small Cells are Larger than animal cells
The cell wall is absent The cell wall is present and made of cellulose
Plastids are absent (except Euglena) Plastids are present
Vacuoles are small Large central sap vacuole
Highly complex Golgi apparatus Simple units of Golgi apparatus known as Dictyosomes
Centrioles and centrosome are present Lack of centrosome and centriole
Chloroplast is absent Chloroplast is present
Lysosomes are present Absent lysosomes
Reserve food as glycogen Reserve food as starch


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