Crispr/Cas9: A Game Changer Technique in Genetic Engineering and Biomedical Research

What is CRISPR/Cas9? CRISPR/Cas9 stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9. It is a natural defense mechanism used by bacteria to protect themselves against viral infections. CRISPR/Cas9 is a revolutionary gene editing technology that has transformed the field of genetics and biomedical research. It enables researchers to manipulate and edit DNA sequences […]


What is an antigen? An antigen is defined as any substance which can stimulate our body to make an immune response against that substance. Example Bacteria, Viruses, Chemicals PROPERTIES OF ANTIGENS Antigens are foreign in nature. Antigens are chemical (Proteins, polysaccharides) Antigens have a minimum molecular mass of 5000 Da. The complex structure of an […]

Cells of Lymphoid Lineage

Cells of Lymphoid lineage include T, B, and NK(natural killer)  cells, and among these B and T cells are the part of Adaptive immune response while NK cells are the part of innate immune responses. These cells(B and T) contains a large nucleus and a thin layer of cytoplasm. B cells B cells also are […]


In the last article ‘Hematopoiesis’, we heard the term myeloid lineage/progenitor. These Cells (cells of myeloid lineage) are the first responder to infections. These cells include: Neutrophil, Basophil, Dendritic Cell, Monocytes and these are the parts of innate immunity. Granulocytes Granulocytes are known as PMN(polymorphonuclear leukocytes). Basophil, Neutrophil, and Eosinophils are categorized under granulocytes.  These […]


In adaptive and innate immunity, we have discussed the different types of cells such as lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils. The process of the formation of these cells is known as hematopoiesis. Hemato = blood, poiesis =synthesis Hematopoiesis is the process to produce all the cellular components of blood. Hematopoiesis occurs during embryonic development and during adulthood […]

Lymphoid organs| Primary and secondary lymphoid organs

In previous articles, we have already discussed innate and adaptive immunity. If you have not read those articles, click here to read 1. Innate immunity 2. Adaptive immunity As we know cells forms tissue, tissue forms organs, and organs form a system. In this article, we have divided the cells and organs of the immune […]


In our daily life, we are exposed to millions or trillions of pathogens, through contact, inhalation, or ingestion. We got an ability to avoid infection and this is the function of our immune system. This ability to resist infections is known as immunity. Immunity is interconnected in two systems: 1. Innate immunity 2. Adaptive immunity […]

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